Monday, January 31, 2011

Revamped Web Site

The noted Melungeon researcher Joanne Pezzullo has revamped her web site, making it easier to navigate, and has added a search engine for it. This is the best Melungeon site on the web and it can always be reached through the Melungeon Studies blog's "Links of Interest" page, a link to which is on the blog's sidebar.

To go there now: Click Here.

Sunday, January 30, 2011

Pickin’ in the Park

Morristown, Tennessee Welcomes Musicians of All Ages

Musicians for thousands of years have gathered on porches and in public places to play music with friends. Every Thursday evening from May thru September hundreds of musicians of all ages and styles gather at Fred Miller Park in Morristown for a weekly acoustic jam session. It’s called “Pickin’ in the Park,” and the goal is to help musicians learn more about their craft and to preserve East Tennessee’s rich musical heritage.

Pickin In The Park begins at 6 p.m. and winds up at dusk. The pickins are held at the same time, rain or shine every Thursday evening from May through September each year. Whether musicians have an ear for that high lonesome sound, bluegrass, country, gospel, blues, jazz or rock, they’re all welcome at the Pickin’ in the Park. The weekly event also features drum circles for percussionists. The only rules are no electric instruments or amplifiers and microphones for acoustic instruments, no commercial instrument sales, no formal performances and no charge. In other words, it is a fun, free acoustic jam session.

For more information: Click Here.

Saturday, January 29, 2011

Jimmy Martin Memorial Bluegrass Festival

Sneedville Tennessee is proud to announce the Jimmy Martin Memorial Bluegrass Festival. Sponsored by The Hancock County Tennessee Historical and Genealogical Society.

Dates: May 27 - 28 2011
Times: Fri 1pm-9pm, Sat 12:30pm-9pm

At Ken Cantwell's Airstrip on Tazewell Highway.
Campers and RVs are welcome.

For more information: Click Here.

Friday, January 28, 2011

Caring for Your Family Archives

Advice from the National Archives

Topics discussed:

* How do I preserve my family papers?
* How can I safely mount my documents, memorabilia, and photographs into albums or scrapbooks?
* What kind of photo album should I use?
* How should I attach my photos to the album pages?
* Should I remove my photographs from old albums, such as black paper albums or self-stick albums?
* How should I caption my photographic prints; is there a safe way to write on the back of photographs?
* How should I frame and display my photographs?
* How should I store my photographic prints?
* Should I convert my home movies to video tape?
* How can I get some important documents that I own repaired?
* Should I digitize my photo collection? Is it safe to throw away my original film and prints after I digitize them?

To read: Click Here.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

The Cumberland Gap

The Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
By William W. Luckett

Tennessee Historical Quarterly
December, 1964, Vol. XXIII, No. 4

Cumberland Gap is a prominent V-shaped indentation in the Cumberland Mountains. It is situated on the Kentucky-Virginia boundary approximately one-quarter mile north of the point where Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee meet. The base of the pass lies in a plane 300 feet above the valley floor and 900 feet below the pinnacle on its north side. On the south side, the mountain is only 600 feet above the saddle of the Cap. Viewed from a distance, this picturesque natural feature probably appears much the same as it did when seen by the first pioneers. However, a closer look will reveal that the north side of the pass has been sliced by a modern highway to a depth of approximately twenty feet.

Indians used Cumberland Gap as a gateway through the mountains long before the arrival of the white man. Those crossing the Ohio at the mouth of the Scioto River found a well-beaten trail known as the Warriors' Path, leading directly to the Gap. Often they ventured beyond and into the Carolinas on the Catawba Trail, or toward the south on the Clinch and Cumberland Cap Trail which connected with others leading to present-day Chattanooga and Middle Tennessee. Occasionally these hunters returned to the Scioto country by following the Great Indian Warpath which intersected the Catawba at a point about thirty miles southeast of the Gap.

To continue reading:  Click Here.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

RootsTech 2011

Explore Emerging Technologies

February 10 - 12, 2011
Salt Palace Convention Center
Salt Lake City, Utah

If you have ever clicked a mouse in the pursuit of your ancestors, RootsTech is for you! Discover new and emerging technologies that will improve and simplify your activities. Help shape the future of family history by sharing your feedback with technology innovators.

For much more information: Click Here.

I'll wager that no one will go to RootsTecvh 2011 based on this blog entry but we live in an era of rapidly evolving technology-based genealogical tools and resources, and it's well worth going to its web site just to look at the topics to be presented and discussed.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Kentucky Explorer Special Offers

Kentucky Explorer magazine, a magazine devoted to Kentucky history and genealogy, is having a special on CD's of its back issues.

For details: Click Here.

For more about Kentucky Explorer: Click Here.

Monday, January 24, 2011

Two Notable Deeds

February 14, 1835

Hawkins County, Tennessee Deed Book 15: 397-398

George Gibson of Putnam County, Indiana to Simon Collins of Hawkins County, $150, tract on Black Water Creek, part of a 300-acre tract granted by the State to James Johnson and Moses Humphrey, containing 50 acres more or less and witness by Vardy [his mark] Collins, Burrell [his mark] Sullivan and Morgan Collins.

Hawkins County, Tennessee Deed Book 15: 398

Jordan Gibson to Simeon Collins, of Hawkins County, $200, the west fork of Black Water Creek, part ofa 300-acre tract granted to James Johnston and Moses Humphreys... a patent line south of Powells Mountain, Signed by Jordon [his mark] Gibson and witnessed by Vardy Collins and Alfred Collins.

Note: Vardy Collins was a well-known Melungeon, and Collins and Gibson were common Melungeon surnames around Black Water Creek (and Newman Ridge). Note also that in 1835 Hancock County was still part of Hawkins County.

Sunday, January 23, 2011

Appalachian Traditional Music

A Short History
By Debby McClatchy

In the 1763 Treaty of Paris the French gave up their American land rights to the English, causing the start of a larger expansion through and into the Appalachians from 1775 through 1850. The population explosion in Ireland (from four million in 1780 to seven million in 1821), coupled with a lifting of travel restrictions from that country, increased immigration to the US. Most of the Scots-Irish coming to Pennsylvania came as indentured servants. When their terms of service were over they found local land too expensive and so went south into the mountains. It is generally perceived that this 'lower' class of immigrant resulted in the 'poor white trash' or 'hillbillies' of Deliverance fame, although the truth is that to survive in the Southern Mountains you needed to be resourceful, healthy, and knowledgeable.

By 1790 any good land was taken or too expensive for most. Still, communities were settled rather late; at the time of the Civil War (1860s) most settlements did not average more than three generations back. All this tended to produce communities that were isolated geographically and unstable, at least compared with the higher degree of order, law, and precedent found on the Eastern Seaboard. Frontier life was rigorous and a struggle; people needed to rely upon each other, and anything social, including religion, was highly important, producing a generally deeply religious population. Musical traditions from home were important links to the past and were cherished and passed down to the next generation.

Traditional Appalachian music is mostly based upon Anglo-Celtic folk ballads and instrumental dance tunes. The former were almost always sung unaccompanied, and usually by women, fulfilling roles as keepers of the families' cultural heritages and rising above dreary monotonous work through fantasies of escape and revenge. These ballads were from the British tradition of the single personal narrative, but the list was selective; most of the one hundred or so variations of the three hundred classic ballads found in American tradition are to do with sexual struggles from the female standpoint, as Barbary Allen, Lord Thomas and Fair Ellender, and Pretty Polly. One is less likely to find Scottish ballads of rape and dominance, or those with men as heroes. A large percentage, perhaps almost half, of the American variations tend to be about pregnant women murdered by their boyfriends.

The ornamentation and vocal improvisation found in many Celtic ballads seems to have led to that particular tonal, nasal quality preferred by many traditional Appalachian singers. But, even as content was changed to reflect American locations, contexts, and occupations, many nineteenth century versions of the Child Ballads still refer to Lords and Ladies, castles, and ghosts, and retain as their central theme love affairs and interpersonal relations. The churches of America were also very influential and usually more puritan in nature. Many fairly explicit lyrics were softened and cleaned up. British paganism was frowned upon, and this censorship resulted in ballads where repentance and doom supplanted sinful behavior.

For more: Click Here.

Saturday, January 22, 2011

A Collection of Appalachian Stories is are trying to preserve Appalachian culture through story telling on the web. The site welcomes stories, true and fictional, from its readers. If you have a story, submit. Or just stop by to browse.

Categories range from ghost stories to recipes to pictures to home remedies to coal mining stories to mountain living.

To visit: Click Here.

Friday, January 21, 2011

Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties

Compiled and Edited by Charles J. Kappler

This is an historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S. treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors' use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins.

Volumes I through VII are now available on the web both as fully searchable digitized text and as page images. The contents may be accessed from the Table of Contents or Index of each volume or through keyword searching.

To consult the compilation: Click Here.

Thursday, January 20, 2011

HathiTrust Digital Library

The mission of HathiTrust is to contribute to the common good by collecting, organizing, preserving, communicating, and sharing the record of human knowledge.

In this effort our goals are:

* To build a reliable and increasingly comprehensive digital archive of library materials converted from print that is co-owned and managed by a number of academic institutions.
* To dramatically improve access to these materials in ways that, first and foremost, meet the needs of the co-owning institutions.
* To help preserve these important human records by creating reliable and accessible electronic representations.
* To stimulate redoubled efforts to coordinate shared storage strategies among libraries, thus reducing long-term capital and operating costs of libraries associated with the storage and care of print collections.
* To create and sustain this “public good” in a way that mitigates the problem of free-riders.
* To create a technical framework that is simultaneously responsive to members through the centralized creation of functionality and sufficiently open to the creation of tools and services not created by the central organization.

Currently Digitized:

7,857,428 total volumes
4,413,590 book titles
195,899 serial titles
2,750,099,800 pages
352 terabytes
1,963,843 volumes in the public domain

To visit the HathiTrust Digital Library: Click Here.

Note: Full online text is only available for works in the public domain.

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

The Tennessee Historical Society Discusses the Melungeons in 1890

Magazine of American History
With Notes and Queries, Illustrated
Edit by Mrs. Martha J. Lamb
VOL. XXV, January-June, 1891

Page 258:

The Tennessee Historical Society held an interesting meeting on the 9th of December last, at Nashville, Judge John M. Lea presiding. Colonel Reese, on behalf of the committee to consider the eligibility of women as members, reported that there was nothing in the rules to prevent, and, in fact, that the society now had a lady member—Mrs. Martha J. Lamb of New York.

After the reports of various committees had been read, and other business transacted, Judge Lea addressed the society on the subject of the Melungeons. He outlined the early history of the settlement of North Carolina. A party under the protection of a friendly Indian chief had gone into the interior when the first settlers came to that coast and had been lost. No other settlers came till a century afterward, and they were told of a tribe who claimed a white ancestry, and among whom gray eyes were frequent. This people were traced to Buncomb and Robeson counties, where the same family and personal names were found as in the lost colonies. They are now called Croatians, on account of a sign they made on the trees to keep their way. The Bosques of the Spanish coast have been said to have settled in that country, but this theory was not thought to be trustworthy. It would be impossible for negroes to form a distinct race, because the number necessary for a colony would not have been allowed to run at large. The race has several old English words which are used as they were in England two hundred years ago, and a case of civil rights has been won in court by a Melungeon displaying his person and proving to the court that he was of Caucasian blood. North Carolina gives the Croatians $1,000 a year for a normal school, and they have excellent roads. This colony, whose early history is thus so clearly traced, lies within forty miles of the Tennessee Melungeons.

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Melungeons Defined in 1895

The Century Dictionary
An Encylcopedic Lexicon of the English Language

Prepared Under the Supervision of
William Dwight Whitney, Ph.D. LL.D.
Professor of Comparative Philology and Sanskrit
Yale University

Page 3702:

Melungeon (me-lun'jon), n. [Origin obscure:
perhaps ult. < F. melange, a mixtiure: see
melange.] One of a class of people living in
eastern Tennessee, of peculiar appearance and
uncertain origin.

"They resented the appellation Melungeon, given to them
by common consent by the whites, and proudly called
themselves Portuguese." Boston Traveller, April, 1889)

Monday, January 17, 2011

The Indians of the Southeastern United States

By John R. Swanton
Smithsonian Institution
Bureau of American Ethnology
Builletin 137
Published in 1946

Several years ago when I was collecting materials from early writers regarding the Creek Indians and other Southeastern tribes, a quantity of notes accumulated bearing on the material culture of these people. These, augmented by a few of my own and sketches of the later history of the several tribes, I have brought together in the present work. Some material has also been included to augment earlier publications dealing with the social and ceremonial usages of the peoples in question. Although they are included in the same general area, it is not claimed that the discussion of certain of these tribes is complete, meaning particularly the Cherokee, Tuscarora, Quapaw, and Shawnee, which have been made the subject of considerable additional research and are still being studied. Indeed, no claim of a hundred-percent completion of any tribe can ever be made safely, since some manuscript may at any time be drawn from its place of concealment and modify materially everything that has been published, or even occasion a total revolution in our ideas regarding it. The present effort involves in the main a collection of source materials which it is hoped and believed will be of use to future students.

To read this very lengthy publication online: Click Here.

To download it as a set of large PDF files: Click Here.

Sunday, January 16, 2011

Preserve Your Family History for Free at

By Dick Eastman

BackupMyTree is an automatic backup program to preserve your data on the web and allow you to retrieve that data at any time. It works with many of today's most popular genealogy programs, although not with all of them. BackupMyTree automatically finds and backs up industry standard GEDCOM files as well as data files created by Family Tree Maker, Personal Ancestral File, Legacy Family Tree, RootsMagic (version 4 or later), Family Tree Builder, Family Tree Legends, Ancestral Quest, Ancestry Family Tree, Reunion for Mac, and GenoPro. Note the inclusion of Reunion for Macintosh. The rest are all Windows programs.

If your hard drive crashes or your data is lot for any other reason, you first repair any damage, then you log onto the service and download any or all of your genealogy files.

BackupMyTree is supported on Windows XP, Vista, and on Windows 7. It reportedly works on earlier versions of Windows as well but is not officially supported on those older products.

BackupMyTree provides fast, automatic backup and off-site storage for all of your family tree files. All of the most popular family tree file formats are supported. You can retrieve any or all of your files at any time. It is FREE, simple, easy, safe and secure.

I rarely recommend specific products but I am recommending this one. BackupMyTree should be installed on every genealogist's Windows computer.

For more on BackupMyTree: Click Here.

To go to  Click Here.

Saturday, January 15, 2011

Full Moon Names and Their Meanings

Full Moon names date back to Native Americans, of what is now the northern and eastern United States. The tribes kept track of the seasons by giving distinctive names to each recurring full Moon. Their names were applied to the entire month in which each occurred. There was some variation in the Moon names, but in general, the same ones were current throughout the Algonquin tribes from New England to Lake Superior. European settlers followed that custom and created some of their own names. Since the lunar month is only 29 days long on the average, the full Moon dates shift from year to year.

To see the Farmers Almanac’s list of the full moon names: Click Here.

For an even better list of full moon names: Click Here.

Friday, January 14, 2011

Melugeon Studies Moves to a New URL

As of today, January 14, 2011, the Melungeon Studies blog moved to a new URL reflecting its proper name. Some links may be broken due to the move; these will be corrected as soon as possible but most of the blog should be working as usual.

New blog entries will be made here, so please update your book mark to reflect the new URL. I believe that the RSS feed and the new email feed will still work, but I will be testing that to make sure.

Thank you!

Thursday, January 13, 2011

The Wayback Machine

One of the many features of the Internet Archive, blogged about yesterday, is the legendary Wayback Machine which preserves the contents of many web pages no longer in existence:

Browse through over 150 billion web pages archived from 1996 to a few months ago. To start surfing the Wayback, type in the web address of a site or page where you would like to start, and press enter. Then select from the archived dates available. The resulting pages point to other archived pages at as close a date as possible.

To use the Wayback Machine: Click Here.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Allen County Library

The Allen County Indiana Public Library has made a remarkable genealogical collection available online through the Internet Archive. While it has many items pertaining to Allen County, of course, it has many more which range far afield. To cite just one example among hundreds, it contain the marriage records of Hawkins County, Tennessee for the years 1797 to 1886.

To view Allen County Library's online collection: Click Here.

To visit the Internet Archive's main page: Click Here.

Monday, January 10, 2011

An Introduction to Genealogy

By the One, the Only, Dick Eastman

Do you have a curiosity about your family tree? Many people do. Some may have their interest piqued because of an heirloom, an old picture, or perhaps an unresolved family mystery. The reasons people get hooked on genealogy are many and varied, but each person's search is unique. After all, the search for your ancestors really is a search for yourself.

To continue reading: Click Here.

Lewis and Clark

A National Registry of Historical Places Travel Itinerary

The National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, and Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, in conjunction with the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO), proudly invite you to discover the historic places of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This expedition, which took place between 1804 and 1806, has been described as the greatest camping trip of all time, a voyage of high adventure, an exercise in manifest destiny which carried the American flag overland to the Pacific. It was all of this and more. This travel itinerary highlights 41 historic places listed in the National Register of Historic Places and associated with Lewis and Clark. Many of these places are also part of the National Park Service's Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.

For much more: Click Here.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

Melungeon Studies Blog Email Subscriptions Redux

I have been informed that the instructions I gave yesterday for switching from the old email feed to the new email feed were less than clear.

Unsubscribing from the old feed is done by clicking on the unusubscription link at the bottom of the email. Subscribing to the new feed must be done on the blog itself, and it is there, not within the email, that you will find a link for doing so on the sidebar to the right.

You can, if you like, first subscribe to the new feed, then unsubscribe from the old. That way you could ensure that the new feed is working for you before canceling the old feed.

Thank you for your patience and attention to this matter!

Saturday, January 8, 2011

Melungeon Studies Blog Email Subscriptions

If you subscribe to the Melungeons Studies blog by email, please unsubscribe and re-subscribe using the link on the blog's sidebar to the right. I have created a new email feed for the blog which gets its title right, and while I cannot stop the old feed at this time, I cannot guarantee how long it will keep working.

The RSS feed is not affected.

Thank you!!

Friday, January 7, 2011

Announcing a New Melungeon Discussion Group

Libby Bunch Smiddy, a bona fide Melungeon descendant through multiple lines, and I, a long-time RootsWeb Melungeon list moderator in years past, have established a new, Yahoo-based Melungeon discussion group called Melungeon Studies.

This group is not affiliated with the Melungeon Historical Society, the Melungeon Heritage Association or any DNA testing project or organization. As such, the only constraints on discussions there will be that they be evidence-based and that the usual and expected participant decorum be maintained. Being Yahoo-based, this group also has the advantage of allowing files and images to be uploaded its web site for all to share, among other features, although the actual discussions are carried out through email in the manner of a RootsWeb mailing list (but are also accessible through its web site).

The noted Melungeon researchers Joanne Pezzullo and Kathy James have already signed on to be a part of this new group, and anyone interested in joining us should: Click Here.

Thursday, January 6, 2011

"The Malungeons"

According to Joanne Pezzullo

From my research I hope to be able to show that the Malungeons were in fact Portuguese Adventurers who intermixed with the local Indians in the Carolinas, I believe I can.

These families were reported along the Pee Dee River as early as 1725, they may have joined Christian Priber's 'Paradice', his Utiopa in the Cherokee Indian Town. They were likely ejected after his arrest in 1743 when Chief Attacullaculla signed an agreement in Charleston to trade only with the British, return runaway slaves and expel Non-English whites from their territory, in return they received guns, ammunition, and red paint .[*]

From court records found in North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee, Indiana, Missouri, Illinois these families from the Pee Dee declared they were Portuguese and in most cases they succeeded. The Ivey, Halls, Chavis, Shoemake, Bolton, Perkins, Goins, Collins, Nickens, Dungee, and others have all been identified as Portuguese in courts, county histories, etc.

In 1848 a journalist from Louisville, Kentucky visited Newman's Ridge where he stayed at the Vardy Inn and wrote the 'legend of their history' -- and it would appear that Vardy Collins and/or his wife 'Spanish Peggy Gibson' were the possibly the source. Most researchers assume Vardy was giving the history of his Collins family but it is likely his ancestors were merely Indians as were many of the other early settlers on Newman's Ridge. The little Portuguese community on the border of the Carolinas appears to have started breaking up around 1800 and many had moved west after the War of 1812.

Judge Lewis Shepherd defended the granddaughter of Solomon Bolton in 1874 and in that trial testimony was given by credible witnessess that Solom Bolton [and people of his race] had been 'called Malungeons' and as Shepherd would tell it later these people came from South Carolina. In fact Solomon Bolton's father, Spencer Bolton was said to have been born on the Pee Dee River in 1735 which would means his family as well as deeds of the Bass, Perkins, Ivey, etc., can be shown living in the same area that in 1754 showed '50 mixt families' residing. Judge Lewis Shepherd tells how these people came over the mountains from South Carolina to Hancock County, Tennessee and spread out from there.

The Lowery of the Lumbee families according to history have Portuguese ancestors and it is said that Tobias Gibson, son of Jordan is also said to have had Portuguese ancestry. It seems fairly clear to me that the Portuguese settlers who intermixed with one tribe, most likely the Cheraw or Saura, became the 'Lumbee' while just across the line those same families who intermixed with the other tribes, possibly the Catawba, Pee Dee, etc., became known as Redbones. As they moved into Tennessee and intermixed with the Saponi-Occaneechi families of Gibsons, Collins, etc., they became what was described in 1848 as the 'present race of Melungens.'

For more: Click Here.

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

Tax Lists: A Goldmine of Information

By Barbara Vines Little

Published in OnBoard
The Newsletter of the Board for Certification og Genealogists

Virginia is missing its 1790 and 1800 census records and about half of the records for 1810. Tax lists are the closest thing to a census available for this time period. Fortunately a number of tax records have been published as substitutes; e.g., a 1787 personal property tax list that named every white male aged twenty-one or older, was published as The 1787 Census of Virginia. While tax lists do not count everyone, censuses typically do. Tax lists are usually compiled each year and thus provide an annual snapshot of individuals in the community.

To continue reading: Click Here.

Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Special Censuses

Special Censuses Counted More Than People

By Sharon Tate Moody
Tampa Bay Online

How much corn, potatoes, flax, sugar and honey did your great-great grandfather farmer produce in 1860? How successful was your great grandfather's small manufacturing business in 1880? How many men and women did he employ and what did he pay them?

Where would a researcher find such revealing information about their ancestors? In the census — but not the one we usually refer to as "the census."

Researchers are most familiar with the national population survey taken every 10 years since 1790. Those records vary in the information they provide; the census initially began to determine population for elected representation.

But the government also wanted other information, so it created a variety of surveys, called schedules, which provided insight and clues for researchers.

To continue reading: Click Here.

Monday, January 3, 2011

Gibson Descendant Freedom Suit, 1804

In 1804 an enslaved family who were descendants of a George and Jane Gibson of Charles City County, Virginia, filed suit claiming freedom based on their being of Indian descent, the claim specifically being that Jane Gibson was an Indian.

To see a transcript of their petition: Click Here.

Sunday, January 2, 2011

Stories of the Civil War

National Park Service Civil War Institute

The Civil War touched every person and influenced every institution more profoundly than any other event in American history. Over half a million young Americans gave their lives fighting for or against the effort by Southern states to secede from the Union and to preserve a society based on slave labor. Not only were civilians deeply scarred by the war, but no aspect of the society, economy, or political system was spared. To this day, no part of the American past attracts so much continuing interest as the War Between the States.

The National Park Service conserves the sites of the most important military actions of the war. Through exhibits, video presentations, ranger talks and guided tours, publications, research and educational programs, historians and interpreters help provide Americans and their guests with a deeper understanding of the conflict. Today, those efforts have grown to include the World Wide Web.

Here you can begin to explore the broader meanings of the Civil War, for you, for Americans of that time and of ours. The information is arranged according to four major areas of impact on America:

Social Aspects of the Civil War: How was the contest influenced by the rapidly changing world of American family, community, and work life, and especially by the institution of slavery?

Economic Aspects of the Civil War: How was the nature of war itself transformed by the industrial and transportation revolutions of 19th-century America?

Political Aspects of the Civil War: How did the conflict over the issue of slavery shatter the American political order, shape wartime strategies, and transform our system of constitutional government?

Military Aspects of the Civil War: How were battlefield decisions often shaped by the prior knowledge and experience of the soldiers, even in their peacetime lives?

To let the words of National Park Service Rangers guide you on your path to discovery of the Civil War: Click Here.