Thursday, April 30, 2009

Fort Christanna

Why is Fort Christanna important?
By Gay Neale
Tuesday, April 14, 2009

In 1714 Virginia was a colony of Great Britain. The area that now is Brunswick County was wilderness, with only a few settlers and with wandering groups of Native Americans displaced from their Tidewater lands. Virginia's governor, Alexander Spotswood, was concerned about the safety of settlers and wanted to provide a safe place for more people to come. He was also concerned about the wandering groups of Indians, known as the Tributary Indians, who were often attacked by their enemies, the Nottoway and Meherrin tribes. He additionally wanted to provide a trading site for the Native Americans of the area. He found the ideal spot on a cliff above a bend in the Meherrin River. The colony's legislature provided funding, and in 1714 the fort was built. At that time it was the farthest western outpost of the British Empire.

To read more: Click Here.

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

First Annual MHS Conference - June 12

MHS Press Release

Melungeon Conference Focuses on History and DNA Technology

History, genealogy, and the latest DNA technology will come together at the first annual Melungeon Historical Society conference. The public is invited to this event, which will be held on June 12 at the Hawkins County Rescue Squad meeting room, 955 East McKinney Avenue, Rogersville, Tennessee.

"For nearly two hundred years, writers and researchers have speculated about the origins of the Melungeons," says Wayne Winkler, president of MHS. "For the most part, the story of the Melungeons has been told through myths and legends. The Melungeon Historical Society believes that answers will be found through scholarly research."

Presentations at the MHS conference will begin at 10 a.m. and will cover topics such as the origin and historical uses of the term "Melungeon," DNA research on Melungeon families, and other topics related to the multi-ethnic people first documented in the Clinch River region in the early 19th century. The use of DNA technology in genealogy will be covered by Roberta Estes, founder of DNAExplain, a Michigan company that analyzes and interprets individual DNA tests.

Other presenters include Jack Goins, Hawkins County Archivist and author of Melungeons and Other Pioneer Families; Kathy Lyday-Lee, a professor at Elon College who taught a course on Melungeons; and Kathy James, who will present DNA information on the Gibson and Collins families.

"This conference is of special interest to those who want to learn more about the Melungeons," said Winkler, "but it is also designed to benefit anyone interested in genealogy and especially in the use of DNA technology to trace family lines."

The conference is free, but donations are suggested to help promote the work of the Melungeon Historical Society. For more information, contact Winkler at (423) 439-6441 or

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Collins Records in Ashe County, NC

Complied by Joy King

Dr. A. B. Pruitt, ABSTRACTS OF LAND ENTRIES: ASHE COUNTY, NC PART 1 Feb. 1800-Jun. 1809 (No place; no publisher, 1994).

page 30 108. May 1, 1800 AMBROS COLLINS enters 200 a in Ashe Co; border: Stephen. REED and John LITTLE; includes the "good" land on waters of N fork of New R.

page 43 169. Robert NALL enters 100 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins in JOEL GIPSON's line on Brush Cr on S fork of New R, runs to LENOIR's line, & down said creek.

page 47
184. Aug. 11, 1800 SHEPHARD GIBSON enters 100 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins near mouth of a "dreen" that makes into "Baire" Cr and runs up said creek.

185. Aug. 11, 1800 SHEPHARD GIBSON enters 50 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins near Georg. MILLER's line and runs down S fork of New R.

page 49 197. Aug. 21, 1800 VOLINTIN COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on "Brushe" Cr; border: begins on JOEL GIBSON'S lower line and runs down both sides of the creek; includes the "good and" vacant land "their abouts".

page 53
207. Sept. 4, 1800 "ARCHABELL" GIBSON enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on waters of Crambery Cr; border: begins on Georg. LEWIS' W line and runs "towards" Peach Bottom Mountain; includes the "good and" vacant land "their abouts".

208. Sept 4, 1800 ARCHABELL GIBSON enters 100 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins at William "LENOR'S" N line "not far" from lower forks of "Crambry" [Cr ?] which is called Piney fork; includes the "best" vacant land "their abouts".

page 63 250. Nov. 11, 1800 James "HEARRES" enters 125 ac in Ashe Co near GIPSON maner Camp; includes "some" waters of Little R known as Lorrell fork; includes the "best" vacant [land].

page 67 264 Nov. 14, 1800 GRIFFITH COLLINS enters 150 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins on the Virginia line and runs S & E; includes the vacant land between William "PERIY" and the Virginia line.

page 76 299. Dec. 31, 1800 Benjamin LONG enters 50 ac in Ashe Co; between ZACHARIAH GIBSON and the Virginia line.; includes vacant land "their abouts".

page 77 304. Jan. 1, 1801 "GRIFETHS" COLLINS enters 600 ac in Ashe Co on waters of Little R; border: begins near Daniel HOPPERS' line and runs "various" courses; includes the vacant land "their abouts".

page 89 351. Mar. 9, 1801 THOMAS COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins on Samuel PHIPS' line runs E, & up New R.

page 92 365. Apr. 27, 1801 James "BUNYEARD" jr enters 300 ac in Ashe Co on N fork of New R; border: begins on "Mager" BUNYEARD'S line near Three top Mountain and runs "various" courses between said BUNYEARD [or BANYEARD] and AMBROS COLLINS; includes the "good" vacant land and "shuger" coves.

page 93 367. May 2, 1801 Samuel ROBNETT enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on "Purtater" Cr; border: begins on OWEN SISEMORE'S line; includes the mill seat and "NARESES pashead".

page 116 459. Sept. 29, 1801 GEORGE "SISMOORE" enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on S fork waters of New R "a dreen" of Pratters Cr; border: joins my own line; includes the vacant land "their abouts" and the mill stone quarry [or quorey].

page 122 483. Nov. 2, 1801 AMBRS. COLLINS enters 200 ac in Ashe Co on waters of N fork of New R; border: begins in Stephen REED'S mountain line and John LITTLE'S line; includes the "best good" vacant land "their abouts".

page 140 555. Jan. 29, 1801 Joseph CALLAWAY enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on S fork of New R; begins: on N [write over] side of the river at a white "thorn" tree and runs down both sides of the river; includes "Jacob" CERTAIN's old improvement and CHARLES GIBSON's; includes all the "good" land "their abouts".

page 158 629. Mar. 8, 1801 ELISHA COLLINS enters 150 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins on "Stphen" REED'S line on Lorrell fork of New R and runs "various courses"; includes the "good" vacant land "their abouts".

page 196 779. Aug. 25, 1802 ANDREW BOLAND enter 50 ac in Ashe Co on S side of S fork of New R; border: begins above "JUSTES" BOLAND at mouth of a "sairtin" branch, begins at a "sairtin" line tree, & runs "various courses".

page 197 783. Sept. 23, 1802 John MAXWELL enters 150 ac in Ashe Co on a branch of Little R; border: begins on a ridge on W side of White "Nettel" Cove and runs East; includes ARON COLLINS' claim.

page 198 790. Oct. 7, 1802 THOMAS COLLINS enters 100 ac in Ashe Co; border: begins at a chesnut tree on the "crols" of Lorrel fork of Elk Cr and runs "various courses".

page 224 887. Feb. 10, 1803 THOMAS COLLINS enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on S side of New R and on head of Elk Cr; border: begins in his own S line; includes :Shugher" cove.

[second series of pages begins here]
"back' page: Ashe Co., NC Entry taker's return from May 9, 1803 to Aug 5, 1805

page 2 906. May 10, 1803 ELISHA COLLINS enters 150 ac in Ashe Co on waters of N fork of New R; border: begins on Vinson HOLINSWORTH's corner tree, runs on both sides of said river, & runs E to said HOLINSWORTH's line; includes the vacant land and runs "various courses".

page 29 1020. Nov. 8, 1803 ELISHA COLLINS enters 200 ac in Ashe Co on S side of N fork of New R; border: begins at a white oak on James REED's line on a ridge and joins James REED's line [sic] & Stephen REED's line.

page 33 1030. Nov. 16, 1803 Baxten [or Baaten] BOLAND enters 640 ac in Ashe Co on N side of S fork of New R; border: begins near JUSTICE BOLAND's line at upper end and runs "various courses"; includes the vacant land "their abouts".

Ibid. 1032. Nov. 24, 1803 "AMBRIS" COLLINS enters 300 ac in Ashe Co on waters of N fork of New R; border: begins at his line, runs to Sidney MAXWELL's line, & joins "Mager BUNYEARD's" line; includes the "shuger" camps and "good" vacant land.

page 34 1033. Nov. 28, 1803 Elias OSBOURN enters 200 ac in Ashe Co on Piney Br of Crambery Cr; border: begins at a white oak, runs up said branch, & "various courses", includes the vacant land "their abouts said land" the OWEN SISMORE entered in Wilkes [Co}.

Note JK: The above section ends with page 88 1250.
"Ashe Co, NC I heir by cairtefi that this book is tru copey of all the locations that is in said book to the best of my nolage. [signed] Micajah PENINGTON, E T Ashe Co entereay taker, and if you pleas you may send me a recat for this book as you did for the other book by the bairer."

page 4 1267. Aug. 8, 1805 "AMBRAS" COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on S fork of New River and at Turkel Shole; border: begins at a "popler" above Turkel Shole; includes "the" improvement and the "good" land.

page 30 1397. Nov. 23, 1805 ELISHA COLLINS enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on N fork of New R and on a branch that James REED lives on; border: begins on said REED's SE corner, includes the vacant land, "various courses", & the "best" land "their abouts".

[on a small sheet] Ashe Co Entry taker's return Jun. 28, 1806-Aug. 11, 1808

page 3 1618. Jul. 6, 1806 "Ephiram STANAFORD" enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on Long Shole Cr; border: begins on S side of JAWAN [or JACOAN] GOING "the five acre tract"; includes the vacant land.
Note JK: Only GOING in this book.

page 16 1689. Dec. 3, 1806 ELISHA COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on a branch of N fork of New R; border: James REED and runs up a branch and John HOLLANWORTH; includes Weer's [or Beaver] "shugar" camp and includes the place where Sam PHILLIPS built [or bilt] a camp.

page 20 1703. Feb. 2, 1807 "AMBRES COLLANDS" enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on waters of N fork of New R; border: begins on my line of a 200 ac tract and runs "various courses", includes his own improvement where said COLLANDS lives; includes the vacant land "there abouts".

page 78
1989. Aug. 8, 1808 ELISHA COLLINS enters 100 ac in Ashe Co on a branch of N fork of New R; border: begins at a marked "shugar" tree and runs up both sides of the branch; includes Horse Cove and the "good" vacant land "there abouts".

1990. Aug 8, 1808 ELISHA COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on a branch of N fork of New R on which Samuel PHELPS made an improvement; border: begins in "the" line below "the" camp and runs up both sides of the branch.

page 93 2068. Oct. 17, 1808 ELISHA COLLINS enters 50 ac in Ashe Co on Hill Cr; border: begins on Metheas "CARPNTER's" line; includes the vacant land between "HOLLANDWORTH" and CARPENTER.

page 101 2099. Nov. 18, 1808 ELISHA COLLINS enters 25 ac in Ashe Co on a branch of N fork of New R that Leonard LUNSFORD lives on; border: Vinsent HOLLANDSWORTH's N line and runs up the branch.

Note JK: These are all of the COLLINS & GIBSON entries in Part 1.
There are additional entries for Boling & variants, & Sizemore.
Part 2 contains 13 entries for ELISHA COLLINS, but none for any GIBSON.

Monday, April 27, 2009

Upcoming Event at Berea College

Friday, May 1 – Appalachian Heritage Featured Author Reading:

Pamela Duncan, author of the novels Plant Life and Moon Women, will read in the Appalachian Center Gallery in the Bruce Building on the Berea College campus. This will be a celebration of the Spring 2009 issue of Appalachian Heritage, of which Duncan is the Featured Author. Screen printer Debbie Littledeer, Featured Artist for the Spring 2009 issue, will also be present with copies of her prints and cards available for purchase. Refreshments will be served at 7:30 p.m. and the reading will begin at 8:00 p.m.

To visit the Appalachian Heritage home page: Click Here.

To visit the Berea College home page: Click Here.

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Eli Boggs and Alexander Goins

If you followed the link, yesterday's blog entry lead you to a brief account of the death of Alexander Goins. The following is a much more complete telling of the tale and the lyrics of the mountain ballad it inspired:

Excerpt from Rugged Trail to Appalachia
A History of Leslie County, Kentucky and Its People
By Mary T. Brewer

While Eli Boggs was living in Wise County, Virginia, tradition has it that he was implicated in the murder of Alexander Goins, a man of the Melungeon people of southwest Virginia and Tennessee. The story is told here to show how pioneers dealt with horse thieves.

The murder supposedly took place on a ridge of Nine Mile Spur of Black Mountain, known as Goins' Ridge, and about 300 yards northwest from where Mud Lick Creek empties into Callahan Creek. Eli lived in a bottom just west of the grave site of Goins.

James Taylor Adams visited the grave in the 1930's and placed the date of the tragedy around November 10, 1844. The following account was written by Mr. Adams, and given for history by Emory Hamilton of Wise, Virginia.

"The grave is now, as shown by the head and foot stone, twelve feet long by actual measurement. It is now enclosed by Interstate Railroad property fence. Mystery has always surrounded Goins' grave. That is why it has attracted so many visitors.

There are two traditions of the killing, both of which seem to have been accepted as historical facts by different writers. First, the one handed down through the Church family, who were residents of the immediate community at that time, and second, the one handed down through the Maggard-Craft, who lived in Kentucky a few miles across Big Black Mountain (and who have Boggs ancestry).

The Church tradition, and it has the backing of the descendants of Goins, is that Alexander Goins was a respectable trader, dealing in fine horses, which he drove from Kentucky to South Carolina to sell. He supposedly lived in what is now Lawrence County, and operated a race track and breeding farm at Louisa.

On one of his trips, and as he was returning home, he was ambushed on Callahan creek near the present mining town of Stonega, and escaped to return down the stream to the home of Eli Boggs, where he had stopped on other trips through the county. Boggs was a member of the ambushing party, and the next morning he offered to show Goins a nearer way up Nine Mile Spur. Where trails crossed, the robbers awaited their coming, and as they approached, shot Goins. his horse became frightened and Goins fell dead from his saddle near the mouth of Mud Lick Creek.

The descendants of Goins tell about the same story, only that he was on his way to South Carolina to buy horses, instead of returning, and that he carried $9,000 in cash, and that a young man, named William Holbrook, who had been employed by Goins to help him drive horses from South Carolina, played sick, not able to go on the last trip, followed him and led the band who killed and robbed him. This tradition finds substantial strength in a Holbrook family tradition, which tells us that William Holbrook had been employed in the Big Sandy country of Kentucky by Alexander Goins and on one trip he discovered his employer was stealing horses instead of buying them, quit him enroute south, and arrived at an Uncle's house in North Carolina on Election Day in the month of November, 1844.

The Maggard-Craft tradition finds support in the Holbrook tradition, as well as in the Goins tradition. It says that Alexander Goins was a horse stealer; a bad man in every respect. The late John P. Craft, a respected citizen of Wise, Virginia, says that Goins stopped overnight with his grandfather Maggard on Cumberland River the night before he was killed on Callahan Creek, and that when he was getting ready to leave next morning, he pulled down a fine deer skin, and without as much as "by your leave" he cut it up into stripe, which he hung on his saddle horn and rode away. The Maggards knew his reputation as a killer and let him go in peace.

Mr. Craft also remembered hearing his grandmother tell of how Goins took two of his Negro slaves, who had displeased him, tied them in sacks with heavy stones and threw them in the Big Sandy River. He believed that Eli Boggs and his neighbors did kill Goins, but that they did it because he had previously stolen their stock, and not for his money....

If anyone was ever legally accused of his murder there is no record to be found of such accusation. The grave was left to the briars and bushes for many years. Before 1908 someone had built a pen around it. More recently it has been fenced in with other parts of the Interstate Railroad right of way.

Gabriel Church, born 1814, a pioneer settler of Gabe's Branch of Roaring Fork of the Powell River, was living near the scene of the tragic incident, and he memorialized the event in a ballad. Church is said to have written other ballads, but this one is the only one in existence:


Come all you young people
Who live far and near,
And I'll tell you of some murder
That was done on the Nine Mile Spur.

They surrounded poor Goins,
But Goins got way;
He went to Ely Boggs'
He went there to stay.

Ely Boggs he foreknew him,
His life he did betray,
Saying, "Come and go with me
And I'll show you a nigh way."

They started up the Nine Mile Spur
They made no delay,
Till they come to the crossroads
Where Goins they did slay.

When they got in hearing
They were lying mighty still,
"Your money is what we're after,
And Goins we will kill."

When they got in gun shot
They bid him for to stand
"Your money is what we're after,
Your life is in our hands."

"Sweet Heaven! Sweet Heaven!"
How loud he did cry.
"To think of my companion,
And now I have to die."

When the gun did fire
It caused his horse to run.
The bullet failed to kill him
George struck him with his gun.

After they had killed him
With him they would not stay,
They drank up all his whiskey
And then they rode away.

Mrs. Goins she was sent for,
She made no delay;
She found his grave
Along by the way

Go kill a man for his riches
Or any such thing.
I pray the Lord have mercy,
Till the Judgment kills the sting.

For more on "Poor Goins" and other Virginia folk ballads involving violent death, including audio clips, visit the "Deathly Lyrics" web site.

Note: Your MHS Blogmaster is a great-great-great grandson of Eli Boggs.

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Kentucky Derby, Goins, Boggs and Mint Juleps

From the Historical Melungeons Blog

The Thoroughbred is a breed of horse whose ancestry traces back more than 300 years to three foundation stallions -- the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian and the Byerly Turk. Named for their respective owners -- Thomas Darley, Lord Godolphin and Captain Robert Byerly -- these stallions were imported into England from the Mediterranean Middle East around the turn of the 17th century and bred to the stronger, but less precocious, native mares. Yes thoroughbred race horses can trace their lines to three stallions, amazing if you figure how many there are now.

So what does this have to do with Melungeons?

To find out: Click Here.

Friday, April 24, 2009

The Conquest of the Old Southwest

The Romantic Story of the Early Pioneers Into Virginia
The Carolinas, Tennessee, and Kekntucky 1740-1790

By Archibald Henderson, Ph.D., D.C.L.

New York
The Century Co.

To read this work online in its entirety: Click Here.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Saponi Town

This web site is for those seeking to research Native American ancestry deriving from the Piedmont of Virginia and North Carolina. These are Siouan people, commonly referred to generically as the Saponi, Tutelo. Occoneechee, Eno, Cheraw. Many families connected to these bloodlines have carried the identification of " Blackfoot ." Virginia and North Carolina, especially Southside Va, has thousands of the descendents of these people. Some of these people are in state recognized tribes but the vast majority of these people are not formally organized in tribes. Also we have found migration trails into all of Appalachia -- West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee; on into Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa. Some are even known to have settled in Alberta, Canada. There are historical records and family genealogies involving New York, while the historical records notes the main body, referred to at that point as Tutelo, being adopted into the Six Nations in Ontario. It is believed that many descendants survive Tutelo adoptees into some of those Six Nations. There are also migration patterns into South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas.

To visit Saponi Town: Click Here.

A number of Melungeon writers have posited a connection between the Saponi and the Melungeons, some speaking of it as a fact; however, such a connection has yet to be proven. The Saponi Town web site contains a section called "Appalachian Mountain Families" originally created and maintained by the late Melungeon researcher Brenda Collins Dillon.

To go to it directly: Click Here.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

The Monacan Indian Nation

When the first colonists arrived at Jamestowne in 1607, they immediately met with Indian people on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. These Indians belonged to a vast Powhatan autocracy and spoke Algonquian languages. In the piedmont and mountain regions of this area lived Siouan Indians of the Monacan and Mannahoac tribes, arranged in a confederation ranging from the Roanoke River Valley to the Potomac River, and from the Fall Line at Richmond and Fredericksburg west through the Blue Ridge Mountains.

At this time, the Virginia Siouans numbered more than 10,000 people. They were an agricultural people who grew the “Three Sisters” crops of corn, beans and squash, and they had domesticated a wide variety of other foods, including sunflowers, fruit trees, wild grapes and nuts. They lived in villages with palisaded walls, and their homes were dome-shaped structures of bark and reed mats. These Monacan ancestors hunted deer, elk and small game, and they would leave their villages every year to visit their hunting camps. The Monacans traded with the Powhatans to the east and the Iroquois to the north. They mined copper, which they wore in necklaces, and which the Powhatans prized greatly. The Monacans also buried their dead in mounds, a tradition that differentiates them from neighboring Indian nations. Throughout the piedmont and mountain regions, thirteen mounds have been identified and many excavated, yielding interesting information about the lives of these First Americans, whose ancestors inhabited this region for more than 10,000 years.

To continue reading and visit the Monacan Nation web site: Click Here.

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Indian Town Erased by Virginia Colonists Honored

By the Associated Press
April 20, 2009

MIDLOTHIAN, Va. - Virginia will add a new historical marker near Richmond to commemorate a Monacan Indian town that was destroyed by colonists.

Next Sunday's ceremony will pay homage to Mowhemcho (mow-HEM-cho), which was destroyed in the late 17th century and most of its people killed. French Huguenots later settled there and renamed the Powhatan County town Manakin.

Karenne Wood is a member of the Monacan Tribe and director of the Virginia Indian Heritage Program. She said the historical marker "completes a historic circle" encompassing the importance of the Monacan town and Virginia history.

Representatives of the Monacan Indian Nation plan to attend Sunday's ceremony.

Monday, April 20, 2009

Collins Records in Wilkes County, NC

Compiled by Joy King

Mrs. W. O Absher, compiler, WILKES COUNTY, N.C. DEEDS 1778-1803 BOOKS A-1, B-1, & C-1 (1989; reprint, Greenville, SC: Southern Historical Press, Inc., 2007).

P.38: DB. A-1 23 Oct. 1782. Grant- Benjamin CLEVELAND. .589 ac. S Fork New River. .COXES Claim. .COLLINS branch. Page 489

P.54: DB. B-1 4 March 1786. Between David SMITH and Leven COLE. .£30. .100 ac. N side S fork New River. .mouth Nathans Creek. Wit: Alex SMITH, AMBROSE (X) COLLINS & Sarah (X) WADKENS. Signed: David SMITH. Page 120.

Mrs. W. O Absher, compiler, WILKES COUNTY COURT MINUTES 1789-1797 VOLUMES III&IV (Easley, SC: Southern Historical Press, Inc., 1988).

P.16: 28 July 1790
Jordan GIBSON VS Justice BOWLING-Jury: Benjamin MARTIN, Thomas ROBINS, Jonathan WALL, William ISBELL, John PARKS, Richard GWYN, William GILREATH, William JOHNSON, Elisha REYNOLDS, George GORDON, Nathaniel GORDON, Daniel HULL

AMBROUS COLLINS VS Thomas DIXON - same jury only Austin BLACKBORN instead Nathaniel GORDON - mistryal.

P.19: 24 January 1791 Deed from David SMITH to Leven COLE 100 ac., oath AMBROUSE COLLINS.

P.20: 26 January 1791 Jury ord. view road from James BAKERS down old Muster Ground report have turned same from Sandy Island Ford through Low Gap to Alexander SMITHS; thence down bank River to VARDIE COLLENS; thence cross River to Wm. NALLS.

P.22: 27 April 1791
Reuben FLETCHER VS Olive ROBERTS-Jury: Mourten JONES, James LAWS, Patrick BRAY, Andrew BYRAN, Francis VANNOY, Joseph FERGUSON, Nathan HORTON, Zeppeniah HORTON, William REYNOLDS, Spilsby TRIBLE, James SPRADLIN, Jesse HALL.


Mrs. W. O Absher, compiler WILKES COUNTY, N.C. DEEDS 1795-1815 BOOKS D, F-1, & G-H (1990; reprint, Greenville, SC: Southern Historical Press, Inc., 2007).

DB.D: 20 Dec. 1791. N. C. Grant No. 1211. .George REVES. .600 ac. New River. .condt. line between REVES & DAVID COLLINS & Moses TOLIVER near TOLIVERS Mill Dam. Page 42.

Ibid.: 28 Jan. 1797. Between George REVES, Grayson County, Va. and William REVES. .£100. .600 ac. S side New River. .condt. line between REVES & DAVID COLLINS & Moses TOLIVER. .TOLIVERS Mill Dam. Wits: George REVES, JUNR., Jesse REVES & Samuel PHIPS. Signed: George REVES. Page 67.

Ibid.: 4 April 1798. Between John TAYLOR and THOMAS COLLINS. .£15. .70 ac. S side New River. .Samuel PHIPPS line. Wits: Ela. BALDWIN, Jesse REVES & John McMILLAN. Signed: John TAYLOR. Page 329.

Ibid.: 27 Dec. 1797. N. C. Grant No. 1518. .GRIFFETH COLLINS. .50 ac. branch Elk Creek. Page 412.

Ibid.: 27 Dec. 1797 N. C Grant No. 1476. .DAVID COLLINS. .HILLS corner. Page 414.

Ibid.: 13 Dec. 1798. N. C. Grant No. 1770. .VARDY COLLINS. .100 ac. S Side S fork New River. Page 750.

DB. G-H: 2 March 1805. Between Humphrey COCKERHAM and William JACKSON, Surry County, N. C. . .$80. .75 ac. waters COLLINS Creek. .Joseph YOUNGERS line. .Jacob HINSHAWS line. . Joel HAILES line. Wit: Solomon SPARKS & George SPARKS. Signed: Humphrey COCKERHAM. Page 31.

Dr. A. B. Pruitt, ABSTRACTS OF LAND ENTRIES: WILKES CO, NC 1783-1795 (No place; no publisher, 1989).

page 25 10 Mar. 11, 1784 JOHN BOWLEN [or BURLAND] enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co on waters of Fishers R; border: on S side of Roaring Gap; includes said BOWLING'S improvement.

page 38 58. Jun. 24, 1786 JUSTICE BOWLLEN enters 25 ac in Wilkes Co on S fork of "knew" R; border: James BAKER and runs up the river; includes the improvement whereon he lives.

page 40 68. Apr. 9, 1787 William MORRIS enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co on S side of "knew" R; border: at or near the upper end of Flatt Shole and runs down said river; [Jacob MAY- -lined out] trnasfers to VARDRY COLLINS.

page 68 202. [no date [rest of entry is lined out] Jarvis SMITH enters 200 ac in Wilkes Co on Readyes R; border: my former line of the land I bought of Mordica FULLER; includes the vacant land between said SMITH, Mr. KILBEY, & JUSTICE BOLINGS.

page 73 232, [no date] Jarvis SMITH enters 500 ac in Wilkes Co on some of the waters of Readies R; boarder: my former line of land I bought of Mordeca FULLER; includes vacant land between said SMITH, Mr. KILBEY, & JUSTICE BOLING.

Note JK: Mordica FULLER was in Pendleton Dist., SC by 1790, as was Benjamin CLEVELAND.

page 79 258. Jan. 9, 1792 Robert NALL [written over ARCHIBALD GIBSON] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co; border: a white oak at the head of a branch of Crambury Cr in "the" Low notch of "the" Big Ridge.

page 81 268. [no date] transfered to William REVES [Robert NALL- -lined out] enters 150 ac in Wilkes Co; border: George REAVES's line near where ANDREW GIPSON lived and runs down "the" river.

page 83 275. JESSE [JUSTICE- -lined out] BOWLIN [or BOLIN] enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co; border: James LEWIS's line on N fork of "Knew" R, near the mouth of Cammiles Br, & runs on both sides of said river.

page 86 290. [no date] GEORGE COLLENS [or COLLINS] enters 60 ac in Wilkes Co on some of the waters of "Knew" R; border: at or near John LONG'S open line; includes part of Medow Br.

page 88 298. [no date] ARMON GIPSON [William SILCOCK in index] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co on a mountain; border: at or near KOOTS line; includes some branches of Caleys Cr.

page 98 341. Nov. 16, 1793 JESTICE BOWLING [or JUSTICE BOLIN] enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co on S fork of New R; border: on S side of said river "oposet against" said BOWLING'S "plantation" and runs "up".

page 101 353. Nov. 17, 1793 ELISHA COLLENS [or COLLINS] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co; border: upper end of Turkle Shoals and runs down S fork of New R; includes the improvement where said COLLINS lives.

page 104 365. Nov. 21, 1793 ARCHIBAL GIBSON [or ARCHIBALD GIPSON] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co; border: at a white oak on the head of a branch of Crambury Cr in the low "knotch of the" bigg ridge and runs N.

page 106
370. OWEN SISEMORE enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co; border: on the point of a ridge, on W side of Prators Cr, opposite the mouth of Crab fork of said creek, & runs sown said creek.

371. Dec. 4, 1793 LEWIS COLLINS enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co "against" mouth of Fall Br on E side of S fork of New R and runs up said river.

page 108 379. "1793" DAVID COLLINS enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co; border: land GEORGE SIZEMORE "Bt" of Theo EVANS and runs "towards" Bunches Knob on the head of Elk Cr.

page 127 455. "1793" DAVID COLLINS enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co on a branch of Ellk Cr S from William HILL'S under a knob near a camp and runs down said branch.

page 217 911. Jan 2, 1795 Hillair ROUSSAU enters 640 ac; border: No. 910 on Obeds Cr and runs S.
page 218 912. Jan. 2, 1795 Hillair ROUSSAU enters 640 ac on New R; border: near VARDY COLLINS, runs S, & his entry No. 911.

page 404 1871. REUBEN GIBSON enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co on "the" side of New R; border: mouth of a branch and runs 'up".

page 405 1874. "1795" TIRCY [or TIRA] GIPSON [Thomas CALLOWAY- -lined out] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co; border: my own line and runs up a branch.

page 412 1911. "1795" ANDREW GIBSON [or GIPSON] enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co on S side of S fork of New R; border: my improvement and near the mouth of a branch.

page 413
1912. "1795" VARDY COLLINS enters 50 ac in Wilkes Co on S side of S fork of New R; border: at my line above my improvement.
1913. "1795" AMBROSE COLLINS enters 100 ac in Wilkes Co on Oba's [sic] Cr near the mouth on S side; border: near the mouth of said creek and runs E.

page 415
1921 "1795" THOMAS GIBSON [or GIPSON] enters 50 as in Wilkes Co on Obeys Cr; border: the land where I live.
1922. "1795" Justice BOLING enters 25 ac in Wilkes Co; border: James BAKER; includes my improvement.

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Hiking the Highlands

Hanging Out in Hanging Rock State Park

By Joe Tennis

Among the picturesque plains of the North Carolina Piedmont, the Sauratown Mountains rise north of Winston-Salem.

Capped by cliffs, these peaks on the east side of the Blue Ridge are known locally as the “mountains away from the mountains,” and take their name from the Saura Indians, who lived in this area as early as 1,000 A.D.

Here, among the hills of scenic Stokes County, just below the Virginia border, Hanging Rock State Park stands like a crown of the Sauratown Mountains, near towns called Danbury and Lawsonville. The park boasts about 7,000 acres, attracts as many as 350,000 visitors a year and takes its name from a rock outcrop with an elevation of 2,150 feet. This natural wonder - the “Hanging Rock” - stands quite distinctively among the surrounding hillsides, which have an average elevation of less than 1,000 feet.

To read more: Click Here.

To visit the park's web site: Click Here.

Saturday, April 18, 2009

The Matthews Living History Farm Museum

A 21 acre working farm, circa 1900, sponsoring three seasonal events each year: Spring, Summer and Fall. The activities demonstrated at the farm during each event represent what was common practice in that season in Grayson County, Virginia around 1900. The Spring finds them setting the garden and plowing the fields with draft horse teams, or sometimes they are fortunate enough to have oxen teams. In Summer, the garden is in full maturity as are the hay fields. Hay is made, once again utilizing draft teams, and goodies from the garden are sampled. The Fall activities focus on repairs and putting things by as well as a quilt show sponsored by the local Arts Council. Each event features a variety of local artisans demonstrating their crafts and offering their wares for sale, as well as toe tapping local music and good victuals. The barns and livestock are always on view during the May through September week day hours, as are the spring house and workshop.

Admission is free.

Open: May 1st - Sept 30th, Tuesdays and Wednesdays, 10:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Event Dates:
  • Saturday, May 9th, 10:00 - 4:00
  • Saturday, August 1st, 10:00 - 4:00
  • Saturday, September 12th, 10:00 - 4:00
To visit the museum's web site: Click Here.

Friday, April 17, 2009

Indian Attacks in Southwest Virginia

Indian Atrocities Along the Clinch, Powell and Holston Rivers
Of Southwest Virginia, 1773-1794
By Emory L. Hamilton

The Following is the unpublished manuscript, Indian Atrocities Along the Clinch, Powell and Holston Rivers of Southwest Virginia, 1773-1794, written by the late Emory L. Hamilton. The original manuscript consists of 255 pages and has 99 stories throughout, #59 missing from the original manuscript.

To read the transcribed manuscript: Click Here.

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Jeff Weaver's New River Notes

Welcome to my historical resources page for the Upper New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia. (Ashe, Alleghany, Watagua and Wilkes County, North Carolina and Grayson County, Virginia; other parts of Southwest Virginia and Northeast Tennessee).

The information found in this site is organized in two ways, first chronologically. Items which are time specific are presented first in chronological order. Information which is not strictly related to time is presented following that information on a subject by subject basis.

--Jeff Weaver

This truly excellent and and very comprehensive web site, which has been ten years in the making, has long been listed in the MHS Blog's "Links of Interest" section, but should have been featured in a blog entry long ago.

To visit: Click here.

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

The Appalachian College Association

The Appalachian College Association is a non-profit consortium of 36 private two- and four-year liberal arts colleges and universities spread across the central Appalachian mountains in Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Collectively these higher education institutions serve approximately 42,500 students.

The Association helps develop and share ideas, information, programs and resources to achieve its goals, which include promoting cooperation and collaboration among its member institutions to serve the people of Appalachia through higher education and related services. The ACA functions independently of any one institution to serve all its members.

To visit the Association's web site: Click Here.

Tuesday, April 14, 2009

The Triumph Over Slavery

Lest We Forget: The Triumph Over Slavery is a web site created by the New York City Public Library's Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture in conjunction with the UNESSCO Slave Route Project to mark the UN General Assembly's resolution proclaiming 2004 the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle Against Slavery and Its Abolition.

To visit the web site: Click Here.

Note: This site is highly interactive and is much more extensive than may be initially apparent. Whenever rows of small images are presented, clicking on each of them will open up new material.

Monday, April 13, 2009

A 1912 Newspaper Account of the Melungeons

By Will T. Hale
Alton Telegraph


I have heard since boyhood the word “Melungeon.” It is very common in Tennessee, and is often used as a sort of epithet. Also, as a bugbear to frighten children.

To illustrate, middle and western Tennessee is overwhelmingly Democratic politically, while the eastern portion is overwhelmingly Republican. It used to be the case that a Democratic editor inclined to invective would refer to the East Tennessee Republicans as MELUNGEONS. It was an offensive appellation, but there was no way of preventing its use. Then, if a nurse or mother wanted to force a child to obedience, it was customary to say: “If you don’t behave, the MELUNGEONS will get you.”

I have been trying for some weeks to get some information as to who or what the MELUNGEONS were. This forced me to write to different parts of the State, and to examine old newspaper files. At last I learned that they are a queer race of people living in the mountains of East Tennessee, South Carolina, Virginia, and Kentucky – not one colony but several. No one knows their origin, and their reputation has generally been bad, like that of the Gypsies.

To continue reading this very interesting if not entirely accurate account: Click Here.

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Great Smoky Mountains National Park, encompassing some of the oldest mountains on earth, is located in the Appalachian mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. The state boundary line bisects the park, which is one of the largest in the eastern United States. Measuring fifty-four miles long and nineteen miles across at its widest point the park consists of slightly more than half a million acres. Great Smoky Mountains National Park attracts the largest number of visitors annually of any national park, perhaps because it is located within a day's drive of over 60 percent of the nation's population. In recent years, more than nine million visitors have come to the park each year.

The park is named for the mist or blue haze that surrounds the mountains resulting from the interaction between the moist environment of streams and waterfalls and the thick vegetation. The Cherokee name for the area, Sha-co-na-qe, means "place of blue smoke." Rising upward through the blue "smoke" arc thirty-six miles of mountain peaks standing five thousand feet or more above sea level, sixteen of which exceed six thousand feet. The Cherokee Indians, the earliest settlers in these mountains, revered them as the sacred ancestral home of the entire Cherokee Nation, which at one time stretched from Georgia to the Ohio River.

This year the Great Smoky Mountains National Park celebrates its 75th anniversary.

To visit the park's web site: Click Here.

To visit a web1 site chock full of historical and contemporary maps of the park: Click Here.

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Moutain Breeze Kitchen

This eclectic site devote largely, but not entirely, to cooking will reward the hungry but methodical visitor.

Topics Include:
  • Country Recipes
  • Kentucky Recipes
  • Bourbon Recipes
  • Recipes for Hiking and Camping
  • Dandelion Recipes
  • Ramp Recipes
  • Breakfast and Brunch Recipes
  • West Virginia Hotdogs
And many others.

To visit: Click Here.

Friday, April 10, 2009

Magoffin County History and Genealogy

The seat of Magoffin County, Kentucky is located on the Licking River. A settlement was established in 1794, but the settlers were subsequently driven off by Indians and didn't return until 1800. The original settlement was known as Prather's Fort, for one of the settlers, and Licking Station. It was later renamed Adamsville for William Adams, a prominent local citizen, and renamed again as Salyersville, for Samuel Salyer, after the formation of Magoffin county.

To vist Magoffin County's GenWeb site: Click Here.

To visit the Magoffin Historical Society's web site: Click Here.

To visit Magoffin County Roots, a genealogical site: Click Here.

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Television Viewing Reminder

Appalachia: A History of Mountains and People

A Film Series by Jamie Ross and Ross Spears
Presented in Four Parts During April by PBS
Beginning Tonight at 10 PM EST

For program details: Click Here.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

We Shall Remain

From the award-winning PBS series American Experience comes We Shall Remain, a provocative multi-media project that establishes Native history as an essential part of American history.

Episode 1 After the Mayflower - Premiers April 13

In 1621, the Wampanoag of New England negotiated a treaty with Pilgrim settlers. A half-century later, as a brutal war flared between the English and a confederation of Indians, this diplomatic gamble seemed to have been a grave miscalculation.

Episode 2 Tecumseh's Vision - Premiers April 20

In the course of his brief and meteoric career, Tecumseh would become one of the greatest Native American leaders of all time, orchestrating the most ambitious pan-Indian resistance movement ever mounted on the North American continent.

Episode 3 Trail of Tears - Premiers April 27

Though the Cherokee embraced “civilization” and won recognition of tribal sovereignty in the U.S. Supreme Court, their resistance to removal from their homeland failed. Thousands were forced on a perilous march to Oklahoma.

Episode 4 Geronimo - Premiers May 4

As the leader of the last Native American fighting force to capitulate to the U.S. government, Geronimo was seen by some as the perpetrator of unspeakable savage cruelties, while to others he was the embodiment of proud resistance.

Episode 5 Wounded Knee - Premiers May 11

In 1973, American Indian Movement activists and residents of the Pine Ridge Reservation occupied the town of Wounded Knee, demanding redress for grievances. As a result of the siege, Indians across the country forged a new path into the future.

To visit the series' web site: Click Here.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Lord Dunmore's War

MHS Blog entries for April 3 and March 19 have referenced Lord Dunmore's War, a war against the Indians of western Virginia which would probably have more historical prominence had it not been immediately followed by the American Revolution.

To read an account of Lord Dunmore's War: Click Here.

Monday, April 6, 2009

Hawkins and Hancock County Lawyers in 1851

The only lawyer regularly practicing law in Hancock County, Tennessee in 1851 was Richard M. Hamblin of Sneedville.

The following lawyers were regularly practicing law in Hawkins County:

Alexander, Dicks (Retired, possibly deceased)
Aston, Edward J.
Cock, Sterling (Retired, possibly deceased)
Fulkerson, F. M.
Kyle, A. A.
Netherland & Hieskell
Powel, George R. (Retired, possibly deceased)
Powel, Robert D.
Powel, Samuel
Rogan, James W. (Retired, possibly deceased)
Shields, John
Walker, F. M.

All of the above lived in Rogersville except for Sterling Cock who lived in Red Bridge.

Source: Livingston's Law Register, published in 1851 by the Monthly Law Magazine of New York City.

To consult the Register for other other counties: Click Here.

Sunday, April 5, 2009


This native North American plant, a wild member of the leek and onion family, has long been celebrated as a harbinger of spring in the southern Appalachian region. In more recent years, it has become a big hit at farmers markets in the brief period between winter and the first onslaught of summer crops.

Ramps (Allium tricoccum) have an onion-garlicky flavor, though they are considerably milder than either of those relatives. However, if you eat enough of them, and particularly if you munch them raw, you may have a whiff of ramp on your breath and exuding from your skin for the next several days. Don’t let that keep you away from this addictive seasonal treat.

For ramp recipes: Click Here.

Note: Melungeon descendants and collateral relations in Southwest Virginia have been called Ramps locally, especially in Wise County. Some Melungeon authors have equated the two terms; however, at least some and perhaps many who were called Ramps had no Melungeon connection. The historical and genealogical ties between the two groups is a topic much in need of further research.

Saturday, April 4, 2009

An 1897 Tale of Women's Liberation in Southeastern Kentucky

These two articles from the Mountain Echo, a Clay County, Kentucky newspaper, provide an unusual insight into the status of women in Southeastern Kentucky at the close of the 19th century:

Jan. 11, 1897

This community is greatly excited over the disappearance
of Miss Polly Feltner, a young lady living about two miles
from this place across the mountain. January 2d she left
home telling her parents she was coming to town to spend
the week with the family of Mr.J.W. Johnson and would
return last Saturday evening, but she did not return and
Sunday her father came to town to see why she had failed
to return home, when to his surprise he found that she had
not been to Mr. Johnson's at any time during last week.
Her father then became alarmed and began a search. Her
hat and dress were found in the mountain pass between her
home and this place, and her underclothing was found still
further away from the road and nearer the mountain top,
her clothing was torn as if they had been torn off her. The
general supposition is that she has been murdered and the
body hid. Large numbers of men are in the mountains now
hunting for the body, She has been missing nine days.
Excitement is at fever heat over the matter.

Jan. 18, 1897

The mystery of the disappearance of Miss Polly Feltner
has been cleared up. She was found on the head of a creek
called Leatherwood in Perry county, forty miles from here.
She became angry at her parents because they refused to
send her to Charlie Mutzenburg's writing school, and resolved
to leave home and friends, and on Saturday, January 2d she
left home going to the top of the mountain, where she had
previously prepared a suit of male attire, and in which she
clothed herself, then by following a torturous and unused
mountain path she avoided discovery until she had left the
immediate neighborhood. Stopping at a country store several
miles from home, she purchased a hat, pants and suspenders
and other things necessary to complete her masculine attire,
then going to the above named vicinity she found employment
under the name of Ray Feltner. When found by the searching party
she was busily engaged in clearing ground and splitting rails. She
positively refused to return under any circumstances, preferring
to cast her lot among strangers and pass her days acting the man.
She is the daughter of Louis Feltner, a well to do and highly respected
citizen of this county, and twenty one years of age, consequently
Mr. Feltner will not make any effort to get her to return, but let her
try the experiment of being a "farmer's boy."

Friday, April 3, 2009

The First Militia Roster of the Clinch River Area

By Emory L. Hamilton

In the Archives of the Virginia State Library is found one of the most interesting documents pertaining to the earliest settlers of the Clinch River Valley in what is now Russell, Scoot and Lee Counties, but then a part of Washington County.

It is page 229 and 230 of the Dunmore's War Records, and is a roster of 72 names of Militia soldiers under Captain William Russell. The roster is for the first pay period just prior to the outbreak of Dunmore's War in the fall of 1774.

While this document does not list everyone living in the area, it does give an insight into some of the very earliest settlers.

On the ensuing pages I have listed by number and name each of the Militiamen, with a brief biography of what I have been able to find pertaining to each man.

To read the roster: Click Here.

Note: The introduction above speaks of there being 72 names on the roster, yet only 44 names are listed on the web page. The reason for the discrepancy is unknown.

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Runaway Slave Advertisements

From 18th-century Virginia newspapers.
Compiled by Thomas Costa, Professor of History
University of Virginia's College at Wise

This database can be either searched or browsed.

There are two main types of ads, those for runaways and ads for captured runaways or persons suspected of running away. The former, usually placed by the owner or overseer, contain the fullest descriptions. Captured ads, placed by sheriffs or other county officials, usually contain much less specific information but can be very informative, particularly about the fates of runaways.

The runaway and captive ads have also been tagged according to whether single, group, family, or mixed. Single ads describe one runaway or captive; group ads describe two or more runaways or captives, usually, but not always acting in concert. Family ads describe groups of runaways or captives in which there is a family relationship of some kind: mother- or father-children, husband-wife, brothers, etc. Finally, mixed ads describe groups in which blacks and whites or servants and slaves are associated or have run away together.

To access the database: Click Here.

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Appalachia: A History of Mountains and People

A Film Series by Jamie Ross and Ross Spears
Presented in Four Parts During April by PBS
Beginning Thursday, April 9 at 10 PM EST

Part One: Time and Terrain

The series begins with Earth’s oldest mountains — the Appalachians. We see how continents over millions and millions of years collide in a slow dance which ultimately results in the formation of the mountains we now know as the Appalachians. We trace the evolution of the Great Forest which blankets the region in green, forming a home for a unique mosaic of plant and animal species

We watch as the first humans who arrived as early as 12,000 B.C. develop a complex and sophisticated relationship with the natural world. In Appalachia, we soon discover, geology is destiny. We see portraits of Appalachia’s Principal People at the time of European contact: the Cherokee, Shawnee, and Iroquois — vibrant, adaptive cultures with finely tuned relationships to their environment, a complex ecological community with amazing biological diversity. The arrival of the Europeans signals vast cultural and biological upheavals.

Part Two: New Green World

Two cultures, Native American and European, collide in a struggle for control of the mountains. In the conquest of new land, first come the surveyors and mapmakers, including young George Washington, then come the road and cabin builders. From ecologists, anthropologists, and geographers, we hear of the vast differences between the Native American and the European perceptions of the land and its resources, all of which comes to a head when gold is discovered in 1828 in the mountains of Georgia. Once again, geology is destiny.

We see a new inhabitant, the pioneer, carving out a life on the Appalachia frontier, coming to terms with the wilderness, and creating a way of life unique to the mountains, one which will endure in different forms through the centuries.

Part Three: Mountain Revolutions

A rich agrarian society is torn asunder by the cataclysm of the Civil War. “The race for the prize is on,” wrote Harper’s Magazine in 1872 as railroads pushed ever further into the mountains. Speculators spread through every timber rich and mineral infused hollow, making deals. The third hour of the series will tell the story of the region as it confronts this strange new industrial age.

The story begins in the Great Forest, where virgin timber still abounded as late as 1880. Coal camps replace villages; mountain farms are abandoned; missionary schools spring up; the land, the people, the wildlife and the culture are endangered. Foresters, botanists, geologists, novelists, and historians all recount the changes in the land and its people as the coal is dug and the ancient trees are felled to fuel the nation‘s booming new industrial economy.

Part Four: Power and Place

The story of twentieth century Appalachia is the story of a rich but deeply troubled region forging its own distinct identity. From the union battles of the 1920s to the celebration of its rich cultural heritage in music, art and literature, to the enduring environmental and cultural dilemmas of our own time, Part IV will explore the heartbreak and hope of modern Appalachia.

Sociologists and ecologists point to Appalachia’s own inner eye, the ways in which trouble and pain, discovery and self-discovery fortify the region’s soul and backbone. We see new attitudes and new environmental challenges, old people coming back, new mountain lovers moving in — symbolized by an old tree with a new genetic make-up — the American Chestnut.

To visit the series' web site: Click Here.