Friday, October 31, 2008

Haints in the Hollers

Supernatural Tales from the Appalachian Mountains
An Annotated Bibliography

Compiled By Judy A. Teaford
Mountain State University

What better day of the year than Halloween to introduce this extensive and rather detailed online annotated bibliography of the supernatural in Appalachian lore and legend, encompassing not only Appalachian fiction and folklore collections, but movies and Internet sources as well.

To read: Click Here.

Thursday, October 30, 2008

Devil Jim Turner

Outlaw of Harland County
By Holly Fee


My interest in `Devil Jim' was first aroused by the Reverend John Jay Dickey's interview with Woodard Lyttle and curiosity about the killings of William and David Middleton. Since then many bits and pieces of information related to the events surrounding Devil Jim's life have been discovered. The following partial account of Devil Jim Turner is compiled from many sources, Harlan and Clay County court records, census records, Narcissus Middleton's letter, traditional family stories, the above mentioned Woodard Lyttle interview with Dickey and other sources. Some assumptions have been made as to the character and personality of some of the persons involved and as to the timing of some of the events.

But back to the beginning...

To read this fascinating story: Click Here.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

DNA Testing and the Melungeons

By Roberta Estes
Copyright 2006-2008

Roberta Estes, MHS board member and technical adviser to the Melungeon DNA project (among several others), has written this in-depth article especially for us on DNA testing, the types, nature and limitations of commercially available DNA tests for genealogical purposes, and the role DNA testing can play in Melungeon studies.

I want to thank Roberta for all the work she has put into this fine article, which is not only so very important in its own right but will also serve as an informational and technical foundation for future blog entries dealing with genetic genealogy and the Melungeon DNA project. I want to also thank Penny Ferguson and Janet Crain for editorial and production assistance.

To read the article: Click Here.

For future reference, the article may be found at any time under the "Genetic Genealogy" section of the MHS Blog's "Links of Interest" page, the portal to which can always be found on the sidebar to the right, immediately above the MHS Blog Archive.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Geographical Location of the Melungeons

By Joanne Pezullo

Beginning in 1849 and to this very day the researchers have headed to Newman's Ridge to find the Melungeons.

To continue reading this review of the literature: Click Here.

Monday, October 27, 2008

Digtal Library of Appalachia

Appalachian College Association Central Library

The Digital Library of Appalachia provides online access to archival and historical materials related to the culture of the southern and central Appalachian region. The contents of the DLA are drawn from special collections of Appalachian College Association member libraries and include both photographs and documents.

To visit the DLA: Click Here.

Sunday, October 26, 2008

Slave Narratives

Born in Slavery
Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938

Contains more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. This online collection is a joint presentation of the Manuscript and Prints and Photographs Divisions of the Library of Congress and includes more than 200 photographs from the Prints and Photographs Division that are now made available to the public for the first time. Born in Slavery was made possible by a major gift from the Citigroup Foundation.

To go directly to the slave narratives: Click Here.

To first visit a site identifying the Appalachian slave narratives in the collection and discussing where they came from and how they differ from the slave narratives as a whole: Click Here.

Note: This site contains three sample narratives, including one from East Tennessee which is very much recommended, and its own link to the slave narratives site. Both sites require Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Paul Heinegg


By Paul Heinegg
Published Online

Paul Heinegg has devoted many years to research mixed race families of the colonial and early American Southeast, and has very generously published the results of his research online.

To see Paul Heinegg's research: Click Here.

To read a 2004 New York Times review of the life and work of Paul Heinegg: Click Here.

Friday, October 24, 2008

Cumberland Gap Genealogical Event

This weekend, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park will host a heritage celebration as part of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial. A "Genealogy Gateway" area will assist visitors with connecting to their own roots, and at sunset Saturday, visitors are invited to join with pioneer descendants from across the U.S. as they walk in the footsteps of their ancestors through historic Cumberland Gap.

To read more: Click Here.

Thursday, October 23, 2008

Looking at Legends - Lumbee and Melungeon

Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-racial Isolate Settlements
National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81 (March 1993)

By Virginia Easley DeMarce

To read this paper, which followed "'Verry Slitly Mixt'": Click Here.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

'Verry Slitly Mixt'

“‘Verry Slitly Mixt’: Tri-Racial Isolate Families of the Upper South–A Genealogical Study.”
National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80.1 (March 1992): [5]-35.

By Virginia Easley DeMarce, Ph.D.

This seminal paper by noted historian and past National Genealogical Society president, Virginia Easley DeMarce, surveys the literature as of 1992 on tri-racial isolates, including Melungeons and the Goins family, and discusses how genealogical research can contribute to the knowledge of their origins and migrations.

To read the paper: Click Here. (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required.)

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Mahala Mullins

Mahala Mullins was a genuine Melungeon legend and undoubtedly the most famous Melungeon of all to the outside word.

To read about her colorful life: Click Here and Click Here.

Monday, October 20, 2008

The Legend of Swift's Silver Mine

By James A. Dougherty
A Geographical Approach to the Legends of Silver Mine

Southwestern Virginia, Southern West Virginia, Eastern Kentucky and Upper East Tennessee all claim the mining of silver by one Swift, who is variously called "John", "George", "William",and "Tom". North Carolina and Pennsylvania are claimed by many as Swift's headquarters in his mining operations. Of the many legends concerning the mine(s), all seem to fall generally into two categories: the "Kentucky Legends" and the "Clinch Legends". By word "Kentucky", reference is made to all the legends which place the mine(s) of Swift in the present states of Kentucky or West Virginia, including the headwaters of the Big Sandy,the Kentucky, the Cumberland the Red Rivers. By the "Clinch Legends", reference is made to the area drained by the Clinch River and its tributaries in East Tennessee and Southwest Virginia.

To continue reading this unusually complete account of the Swift legend, with which Melungeons have been fancifully associated by some writers: Click Here.

Sunday, October 19, 2008

The Melungeons According to Bonnie Ball

The following I believe to be an excerpt from:

The Melungeons, Their Origin and Kin
By Bonnie Sage Ball, self-published 1969

A generation ago census records of certain mountainous counties of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Carolina, and others proved somewhat confusing. This was due to the presence of a strange group of people whose origin was, and has remained, one of the deepest and most fascinating mysteries of American ethnology.

The "Melungeons" who were called "ramps" in certain areas by their neighbors, have characteristics that range from those of the whites and American Indians to Orientals or Negroes. This variation prevented a definite race classification, and has also given rise to numerous theories concerning their origin.

To continue reading: Click Here.

Note: Bonnie Ball's 1969 book has been often mentioned in the Melungeon literature, such that it is, and this excerpt is offered for its historical interest, not as an authoritative source. Bonnie Ball did, however, live near Newmans Ridge and certainly heard many stories of and about Melungeons which she retold and interpreted to the best of her ability and knowledge, and her book is one of the relatively few extended accounts we have of the Melungeons.

For more on Bonnie Ball's life: Click Here.

Saturday, October 18, 2008

Links of Interest Now Sorted by Categories

And the categories are:
  • Melungeon
  • Appalachian
  • General Historical and Genealogical
  • Genetic Genealogy
  • Genealogical Standards
  • Miscellaneous
Also, additional links have been added.

To have a look: Click Here.

The links of interest can always be accessed through the Links of Interest portal located just above the MHS Blog archives on the sidebar to the right.

Friday, October 17, 2008

The Mullins Family of Newmans Ridge

Descendancy of "Irish" Jim MULLINS
Of Newman's Ridge, Hancock Co., TN

James MULLINS, also known as "Irish Jim", or "Harelip Jim", was the progenitor of the Newman's Ridge Mullins clan. He was supposedly born in England, ca.1780, though there are some who believe that he was born in NC, and is part of the other Mullins families in the VA, NC, TN, and KY area in the late 1700's. It is not certain how Irish Jim's family fit in with the other Mullins families, but all appear to be associated with the mysterious Melungeons, which, seemingly, would make them related somehow. But, as far as I know, no link has been found between Jim and other Mullins', such as Booker Mullins, and Flower Mullins.

Tradition states that Jim migrated to America in the last years of the 18th century, became a trader, and migrated to Hancock Co., TN, where he bought land on Newman's Ridge. He supposedly married a Melungeon woman, named Clara MARTIN (some researchers think she was a COLLINS, or GIBSON). It is not certain whether they were married before he came to TN, or after. Most of the following info came from the Will Grohse Files, with a little help from Rev.Arthur Hamilton Taylor, the De Marce Files, census records, and family tradition.

To continue reading: Click Here.

Thursday, October 16, 2008

The Melungeons of East Tennessee

A History of Tennessee and Tennesseans
The Melungeons of East Tennessee
Will T. Hale and Dixon L. Merritt, 1913

Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson says in his excellent little volume, “The Southern Mountaineers:”

“Occasionally the student of sociology may stumble upon a community that is a puzzle, as, for example, the one occupied by the ‘Melungeons’ of upper East Tennessee.”

That is all he says of the community; and so far as known, no other history refers to the Melungeons at all. Miss Dromgoole in an article mentioned further along states that they appeared during the existence of the State of Franklin; while Colonel Henderson in a letter declares that they were in the East Tennessee mountains when the earliest settlers arrived. The word “Melungeon” was once more familiar to Tennesseans than it is now. To illustrate, it was a custom immediately after the close of the war between the states for the Democratic editors of the central and western sections of the state to refer flippantly to their eastern neighbors collectively as Melungeons, perhaps because East Tennessee was largely Republican in politics. It was in the nature of an epithet. That it was, and still is resented, may be seen from the following circumstance. In seeking for the latest information relative to this puzzling community we recently wrote to a citizen of upper East Tennessee to help us out. This reply was received so promptly as to lead to the belief that he hardly waited to finish the query before snatching up his pen. And perhaps his eyes were red as he wrote;

“We have no such race. Our citizens are civilized people and believe in earning their living by the sweat of their brow, and are far superior to those who try to disgrace them by placing the fictitious name of ‘Melungeon’ upon them.”

To continue reading: Click Here.

Wednesday, October 15, 2008

Appalachian Studies Time Line

A time line of important events in the history of Appalachian studies, presented by the Appalachian Studies Association, publishers of the Journal of Appalachian Studies.

To view the time line: Click Here.

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Genealogy on the Internet

A Lecture Sponsored By
The East Tennessee Historical Society

October 18, 2008
11:00 AM - 2:00 PM

East Tennessee History Center
601 S. Gay Street • Post Office Box 1629
Knoxville, TN 37901-1629
(865) 215-8824

For more information: Click Here.

Monday, October 13, 2008

"Of Portuguese Origin"

"Of Portuguese Origin": Litigating Identity and Citizenship
Among the "Little Races" in Nineteenth-Century America

Law and History Review, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Fall 2007)

By Ariela Gross


The history of race in the nineteenth-century United States is often told as a story of black and white in the South, and white and Indian in the West, with little attention to the intersection between black and Indian. This article explores the history of nineteenth-century America's "little races"—racially ambiguous communities of African, Indian, and European origin up and down the eastern seaboard. These communities came under increasing pressure in the years leading up to the Civil War and in its aftermath to fall on one side or the other of a black-white color line. Drawing on trial records of cases litigating the racial identity of the Melungeons of Tennessee, the Croatans/Lumbee of North Carolina, and the Narragansett of Rhode Island, this article looks at the differing paths these three groups took in the face of Jim Crow: the Melungeons claiming whiteness; the Croatans/Lumbee asserting Indian identity and rejecting association with blacks; the Narragansett asserting Indian identity without rejecting their African origins. Members of these communities found that they could achieve full citizenship in the U.S. polity only to the extent that they abandoned their self-governance and distanced themselves from people of African descent.

Highly recommended: This paper focuses on Melungeons, with an extensive discussion of several important court cases involving Melungeon racial and ethnic identity.

To read the paper in its entirety: Click Here.

See also:

Sunday, October 12, 2008

When You Plan That Appalchian Trip

You might want to visit the National Geographic Society's "Discover Appalachia" web site and explore its interactive map of Southern and Central Appalachia identifying natural wonders, historic places, cultural attractions and local festivals

To Discover Appalachia: Click Here.

Note: Your browser must have JavaScript and Adobe Flash Player enabled in order to use the interactive map.

Saturday, October 11, 2008

Commentary on Brownlow's "Impudent Malungeon"

From Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia
By MHS President, Wayne Winkler
(2004, Mercer University Press)

The [October 7] 1840 article [Archived here] was printed in the Jonesborough Whig, a political newspaper edited by William Gannaway “Parson” Brownlow, later to become the controversial Reconstruction governor of Tennessee. Over the next two weeks, Brownlow’s Whig made several references to the “Malungeon” which made clear that Brownlow considered a Melungeon to be “a scoundrel who is half Negro and half Indian.” References to “the big Democratic Negro” were meant to associate the Democrats with the concept of racial equality, a notion repugnant of southern Whigs (and to southern Democrats as well).

The origin of this “impudent Malungeon” is given as “Washington City.” This raises some questions. Jonesborough, where the newspaper was published, is the seat of Washington County, Tennessee, and there is a Washington County nearby in Virginia. However, there is no city or town named “Washington” anywhere near Jonesborough. In the 1840s, “Washington City” often referred to Washington, D. C. If the “scoundrel who is half Negro and half Indian” came from the District of Columbia, the term “Melungeon” obviously had a far broader meaning and more widespread usage than anyone has suggested to date. If the term was being used in the nation’s capital, one could reasonably assume the term would exist in numerous other records. It does not; as of this writing, the Jonesborough articles of 1840 are only the second known written record of the word, the first being the Stony Creek church minutes of 1813. The author may have been applying a local term to an outsider, someone who would not have been called a “Malungeon” anywhere else?. The more likely explanation, however, is that the reference to “Washington City” is a mistake or a typographical error, and the origin of the “impudent Malungeon” was Washington County. [Cty, an abbreviation for County, might have been mistaken for City when the type was set.]

Tennessee politicians, particularly in the post-Civil War era, would use the term “Melungeon” to describe opposing politicians, particularly Republicans from the eastern third of the state. During the post-war Reconstruction era, bitter epithets flew freely between Democrats and Republicans. This particular epithet, however, seems never to have lost its suggestion of non-white ancestry. When Nashville writer Will Allen Dromgoole asked two Tennessee legislators of the 1890's to define “Malungeons,” the answers were “a dirty Indian sneak” and “a Portuguese nigger.”

Note: Material within brackets added by the MHS Blogmaster.

Friday, October 10, 2008

Brownlow's Whig Decries "Impudent Malungeon"

Published in William Brownlow's Whig
Jonesboro, Tennessee
Oct., 7, 1840


"We have just learned, upon undoubted authority, that Gen. Combs, in his attempt to address the citizens of Sullivan County, on yesterday, was insulted, contradicted repeatedly, limited to one hour and a half, and most shamefully treated, and withall an effort was made, to get an impudent Malungeon from Washington City, a scoundrel who is half Negro and half Indian, and who has actually been speaking in Sullivan, in reply to Combs!

"Gen. Combs, however, declined the honor of contending with Negroes and Indians_said he had fought against the latter, but never met them in debate!

"This is the party, reader, who are opposed to the gag-law, and to abolition! Bigotry and democracy in Sullivan county, well knowing that their days on earth are numbered, are rolling together their clouds of blackness and darkness, in the person of a free negroe, with the forlorn hope of obscuring the light that is beaming in glory, and a gladness, upon this country, through the able and eloquent speeches of Whig orators.

"David Shaver replied to Gen. Combs, we are informed. This is the same Davy, Mr. Netherland gave an account of, some time since, and who, Col. James gave us the history of, in an address, at our late convention.

"When Davy had finished, the big Democratic Negro came forward, and entertained the brethren. These two last speakers were an entertaining pair!"

For more on William Brownlow: Click Here.

Note the name of the newspaper in which this article was published is often given as Brownlow's Whig and sometimes as the Jonesboro Whig, but Brownlow did not use the former name until 1851 and never used the latter name. At the time this article was published, his newspaper was known simply as the Whig. See the reference in the previous blog entry.

Additional note in response to a reader query: The "gag-law" referred to in the article was a rule, usually called the gag rule, adopted by the US House of Representatives from 1836 to 1844 which barred consideration by the House of anti-slavery petitions. This rule was supported by Southern Democrats and some Northern Democrats and opposed by Northern Whigs and some Southern Whigs.

To learn more: Click Here. (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required.)

Thursday, October 9, 2008

Early Tenneessee Newspaper Publishing

A Brief History of Newspaper Publishing in Tennessee
By James B. Lloyd

The history of newspaper publishing in Tennessee is mainly a story of printers who established papers in the new territory. Of the early group, the following five stand out: George Roulstone, Benjamin Bradford, Frederick Heiskell, Elihu Embree, and William Brownlow.

To continue reading: Click Here.

From the perspective of Melungeon studies, the most important publisher discussed is William Brownlow and his paper Brownlow's Whig due to its containing one of the earliest printed references to Melungeons. However, the other publishers and newspapers mentioned are also of historical and genealogical interest as most were located in East Tennessee and none further west than Nashville.

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

County Formation Maps

Throughout American history, as states have formed and grown, new counties have been created and the boundaries of existing counties have changed, while some counties have ceased to exist altogether. Thus even when families have stayed in place for generations, their public records may be found in the archives of multiple counties.

To see maps documenting the formation of counties and changes in county boundaries on a year by year basis for most US states, including Tennessee and all other states of immediate interest to Melungeon studies: Click Here.

Tuesday, October 7, 2008

The Secret History of Race in the United States

Essay by Daniel J. Sharfstein
Yale Law Journal
Volume 112, Number 6, March 2003

"At the heart of this Essay is an attempt to take race beyond conventional legal history and view cases about the color line as portals into a world of secret histories--whispered gossip, unstated understandings, and stories purposely forgotten."

While Melungeons are nowhere mentioned in this scholarly yet engaging essay, Walter Plecker and the Virginia Racial Integrity Act of 1924 are discussed, and the essay's direct applicability to the Melungeon experience is readily apparent.

To read the essay: Click Here. (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required)

Monday, October 6, 2008

Sneedville Fall Festival a Big Success

And the Melungeon Historical Society was out in force, being ably represented by its president, Wayne Winkler, vice-president for heritage, Jack Goins and secretary/treasurer, Becky Nelson, and by members Bob Davis, Johnie Rhea and Cleland Thorpe. The MHS booth was very busy on both days, much genealogical and historical data was shared and swapped, many membership applications were asked for and a number of visitors took away with them bumper stickers, generously donated by Cleland Thorpe, which read: Melungeons Taking Back Our History.

To read the account of the festival published in the Morristown Citizen Tribune, with prominent mention made of the MHS:

Click Here.

Sunday, October 5, 2008


Wherever there were moonshiners in Appalachia, there were revenuers -- treasury agents -- trying to put them out of business. This is discussed by Horace Kephart in his 1913 book, Our Southern Highlanders. To read an excerpt from this book dealing with moonshiners and revenuers, and to see a picture of a working still:

Click Here.

It is worth noting that Kephart's turn of the 20th century writings about Appalachia were in the same "local color" genre, so popular at the time, in which Will Allen Dromgoole penned her newspaper articles on Melungeons in 1890 and 1891.

Saturday, October 4, 2008


Appalachia, along with its western annex, the Ozarks, is famous for its moonshine and its moonshiners, and by all accounts Melungeons were in the thick of it, certainly including the legendary Melungeon moonshiner, Mahala Mullins.

If you would like to know exactly how moonshine is made, and learn a bit of the history of moonshining in America: Click Here.

Friday, October 3, 2008

The Vardy School

Located in Vardy Valley at the foot of Newmans Ridge, the Vary School played an important role in the education of Melungeon children from the late 19th century through the mid 20th century.

To read the surprising story of the Vardy School: Click Here.

Thursday, October 2, 2008

Lewis Jarvis Interview

Lewis M. Jarvis
1903 Interview
Published in the
Hancock County Times

[Note: Lewis Jarvis was a local attorney, born in 1829 in nearby Scott County, Virginia and living most of his life in Hancock County, Tennessee, who knew many Melungeons, including Vary Collins and other early Melungeons.]

"Much has been said and written about the inhabitants of Newman’s Ridge and Blackwater in Hancock County, Tenn. They have been derisively dubbed with the name “Melungeons” by the local white people who have lived here with them. It is not a traditional name or tribe of Indians.

"Some have said these people were here when the white people first explored this country. Others say they are a lost tribe of the Indians having no date of their existence here, traditionally or otherwise.

"All of this however, is erroneous and cannot be sustained. These people, not any of them were here at the time the first white hunting party came from Virginia and North Carolina in the year 1761-- the noted Daniel Boone was at the head of one of these hunting parties and went on through Cumberland Gap. Wallen was at the head of another hunting party from Cumberland County, Virginia and called the river beyond North Cumberland Wallen’s Ridge and Wallen’s Creek for himself. In fact these hunting parties gave all the historic names to the mountain ridges and valleys and streams and these names are now historical names.

"Wallen pitched his first camp on Wallen’s Creek near Hunter’s gap in Powell’s Mountain, now Lee County, Virginia. Here they found the name of Ambrose Powell carved in the bark of a beech tree; from this name they named the mountain, river and valley for Powell, Newman’s Ridge was named for a man of the party called Newman. Clinch River and Clinch valley--these names came at the expense of an Irish man of the party in crossing the Clinch River, he fill off the raft they were crossing on and cried aloud for his companions to “Clench me”, “Clench me,’ and from this incident the name has become a historic name.

"About the time the first white settlement west of the Blue Ridge was made at Watauga River in Carter County, Tennessee, another white party was then working the lead mines in part of Virginia west of the Blue Ridge. In the year 1762 these hunters turned, coming through Elk Garden, now Russell County, Virginia. They then headed down a valley north of Clinch River and named it Hunter’s Valley and buy this name it goes today. These hunters pitched their tent near Hunter’s gap in Powell’s mountain, nineteen mile from Rogersville, Tennessee on the Jonesville, Virginia road. Some of the party of hunter went on down the country to where Sneedville, Hancock County, now stands and hunted there during that season.

"Bear were plentiful here and they killed many, their clothing became greasy and near the camp was a projecting rock on which they would lie down and drink and the rock became very greasy and they called it Greasy Rock and named the creek Greasy Rock Creek, a name by which it has ever since been known and called since, and here is the very place where these Melungeons settled, long after this, on Newman’s Ridge and Blackwater.

“Vardy Collins, Shepherd Gibson, Benjamin Collins, Solomon Collins, Paul Bunch and the Goodmans, chiefs and the rest of them settled here about the year 1804, possibly about the year 1795, but al these men above named, who are called Melungeons, obtained land grants and muniments of title to the land they settled on and they were the friendly Indians who came with the whites as they moved west. They came from the Cumberland County and New River, Va., stopping at various points west of the Blue Ridge. Some of them stopped on Stony Creek, Scott County, and Virginia, where Stoney Creek runs into Clinch River.

"The white emigrants with the friendly Indians erected a fort on the bank of the river and called it Fort Blackmore and here yet many of these friendly “Indians” live in the mountains of Stony creek, but they have married among the whites until the race has almost become extinct. A few of the half bloods may be found-none darker- but they still retain the name of Collins and Gibson, &c. From here they came to Newman’s Ridge and Blackwater and many of them are here yet; but the amalgamations of the whites and Indians has about washed the red tawny from their appearance, the white faces predominating, so now you scarcely find one of the original Indians; a few half-bloods and quarter-bloods-balance white or past the third generation.

"The old pure blood were finer featured, straight and erect in form, more so than the whites and when mixed with whites made beautiful women and the men very fair looking men. These Indians came to Newman’s Ridge and Blackwater. Some of them went into the War of 1812-1914 whose names are here given; James Collins, John Bolin and Mike Bolin and some others not remembered; those were quite full blooded. These were like the white people; there were good and bad among them, but the great majority were upright, good citizens and accumulated good property and many of them are among our best property owners and as good as Hancock County, Tennessee affords. Their word is their bond and most of them that ever came to Hancock county, Tennessee, then Hawkins County and Claiborne, are well remembered by some of the present generation here and now and they have left records to show these facts.

"They all came here simultaneously with the whites from the State of Virginia, between the years 1795 and 1812 and about this there is no mistake, except in the dates these Indians came here from Stoney Creek."

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Dictionary of Mountain Talk

By Judy Henley Phillips

Mountain talk is gradually disappearing. Its demise is largely the result of education and the influence of television and radio. This page was created so that the language would not be entirely lost.

Some blog readers will find nothing new at this site but those of you without mountain roots or who are far from them will find it enlightening and potentially useful.

To view: Click Here.

Note: This site apparently has recorded mountain speech but, unfortunately, your browser must be able to run Apple Quicktime in order to hear it.